The flow of information throughout an organization is an important factor in its success, but Mintzberg believes
those involved have to gain experience in various roles at different levels as well.
In an interview with CNN, he stated: You can teach all sorts of things that improve the practice of management with people who are managers. What you cannot do is teach management to somebody who is not a manager … you cannot teach surgery to somebody who’s not a surgeon.
Does this suggest also that a manager cannot hope to understand those on the lower rungs without having gained experience there?