Teaching and Learning Strategies for Schools

Any decision is based on a body of knowledge. This body of knowledge is produced through research. By applying the appropriate methodologies and the research method, the body of knowledge can be established and advanced with confidence. While research is considered important there is no consensus on how it should be defined because research means differently to different people. Research is basically a systematic method of investigation which increases knowledge. Research relies on facts and experience, data, concepts and constructs, hypotheses and conjectures, and principles and laws (Amaratunga, Baldry, Sarshar, &amp. Newton, 2002). The research methodology is the procedural framework within which the research is conducted. The methodology would depend upon the topic to be researched and the specific research questions are the primary drivers.
Research philosophy highlights two different schools of thought on how to conduct research. Arguments should be evaluated in different ways because primarily arguments have different roles and purposes and people assess according to the purpose in their mind. At times arguments provide useful information depending on one’s knowledge of how the world works. In a different setting, one can take an abstract approach and ask what follows from a given set of information and then decide on the outcome. Arguments can be evaluated in two qualitatively different ways – in terms of their deductive correctness or in terms of inductive strength (Rips, 2001). Research can either be quantitative (deductive) or qualitative (inductive). The inductive method concentrates on words and observations to describe people in natural situations. The quantitative approach places great stress on numbers that represent opinions or concepts. Both the methods have strengths and weaknesses and hence the selection of the methodology is difficult.