Summary what you have learned from lectures

On the other side, counterproductive behaviors are those that are a hindrance to the accomplishment of the organization’s goals such as hostility, reduced efficiency etc. As an employee, recognizing these behaviors affects the quality of results that one attains in the organization, while to a leader, it is important to encourage the internal and organization citizenship behavior while discouraging the counterproductive behaviors. Organization commitment Organizational commitment can be explained as the desire for an employee to be ad remain part of the organization, it influences whether an employee stays in an organization or leaves to take up another job elsewhere. An affective commitment is whereby an employee stays in an organization because he wants to. he is emotionally attached and involved with the organization. In continuance commitment, an employee stays in an organization because he needs to, he is fully aware of the cost implications of moving from that organization and therefore desires to stays, normative commitment is because of the employee feeling that she ought to stay in the organization. one feels obligated to be in the organization. … Motivation can either be extrinsic, which is because of external outcomes such as bonuses, job security and promotions, or intrinsic which is internal motivation such as a sense of accomplishment, skill development and a general enjoyment of the work. Learning and Decision Making Learning can be explained as a change that results from experience in the knowledge or skill that an employee poses, learning can be through reinforcement that is the use of rewards and punishment, observation and experience. In learning, classical conditioning implies that an employee’s response to a stimulus is not what would have been expected. Through operant conditioning, an employee learns by observing the how voluntary behavior produces certain consequences. To increase the desired behavior of an employee one can either employ the use of positive reinforcement whereby an employee’s desired behavior is followed by a positive outcome, or negative reinforcement whereby negative outcome is ridden off through a desired behavior. As a manager, the best form of employee reinforcement would be positive reinforcement and extinction whereby the consequence of an unwanted behavior is removed for example, stop downloading non-work related videos. Decision-making involves having a set of alternative options and choosing the one that is best suited for the issue at hand, this can be through intuitive decision making, in which the decisions are almost automatic to the person. On the other hand, rational decision making which is a systematic decision is making process and is mainly used by managers in an organization. Trust, Ethics and Justice There are different types of trusts and some depend on the trust, case and example, the disposition based trust, whereby, a person’s