Organisation People and Performance

 Organisation, People and Performance
1.1 Assessment Centres
This test mostly focuses on evaluating individuals for high-level management as well as supervisory capabilities. Candidates complete a chain of exercises, which simulate real situations, challenges and works that they will encounter in the job (Gaugler 1987). They handle the exercises as if in actual situations on the ground. They usually take a whole day up some days. They include role-play exercises, group discussions, analytical exercises and in basket exercises. Trained assessors observe the candidates and rate them using universal standards. Some centres incorporate cognitive abilities, personality tests and job knowledge tests. Assessment centres are useful for both selection purposes and provision of inclusive development response to the participants.
1.2 Work Samples
Work samples according to Asher &amp.Sciarrino (1974) contain work activities that directly reflect to the works that the candidatewill have to perform. This method is most suitable in revealing the ability of the individual to perform tasks that are naturally, very technical. This involves having the candidateto perform the desired task while observing him thoroughly to assess his capability of performing the task. The method is applicable to applicants that have knowledge on management before their admission.
1.3 Personality tests
These are tests used to measure qualities relevant to the performance of the task. The individual characters revealed during the test are consciousness, agreeableness, extraversion, experience as well as emotional steadiness (Barrick&amp. Mount 1991). The inventories here comprise of multiple choice questions or true/false objects measuring every factor. Administration of the test occurs in a paper while using pencil or by use of computer.
1.4 Emotional intelligence
This refers to a measure of the ability to recognize, manage and valuate emotions. The test base on four key elements. the ability of the candidate to recognize his own and other people emotions, generating and using emotions in solving problems, understanding emotions and the changes in emotions and the ability of managing both his own and other people emotions. Several methods that may include test questions can help achieve the objective (Hough 1984).
1.5 Cognitive ability tests
These are assessments employed to measure a number of mental capabilities like mathematical and verbal ability, comprehension reading and reasoning ability (Hunter 1986). They comprise of multiple choice objects administered through a paper or computer. The total score of the candidate represents the true measure of his mental ability in performing the job. It is possible to design the exercise to measure one character after the other and then summing up the final score at the end.
1.6 Biographical data
These tests deal with the background of the candidate, interests and personal characteristics. This relies on the belief that past performance is the most significant predictor of future performance. It concerns the manner the candidate performed in the past in the areas related to the management task (Shoenfeldt 1999). For example, the number of volunteer activities the candidate participated in the past provides a measure on his willingness to volunteer. In addition, the test reveals the candidates’ independence and responsibility.
1.7 Graphology
This involves the use of handwriting to measure work related behaviours and personal characters. The handwriting can reveal the level of motivation, creative thinking, strength and weaknesses, working style, communication skills, leadership style, emotional stability, honesty and tendency towards violence (Hough 1984). Nevertheless, no single feature of handwriting provides accurate results but can only help in identifying inclination towards a given behaviour. Combining various features is the one that helps in obtaining a reliable conclusion regarding the personal traits of the candidate.
Asher, J. J. &amp.Sciarrino. J. A. 1974,‘Realistic work sample tests: A review’,Personnel Psychology, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 519-533.
Barrick, M. R. &amp. Mount, M. K. 1991,‘The big five personality dimensions and job performance: A meta-analysis’,Personnel Psychology, Vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 1-26.
Gaugler, B. B., Rosenthal, D. B., Thornton, G. C.&amp.Bentson, C. 1987,‘Meta-analyses of assessment center validity’,Journal ofApplied Psychology, Vol. 72, no. 3,pp.493-511.
Hough, L. M. 1984,‘Development and evaluation of the “accomplishment record” methods of selecting and promoting professionals’, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 69, no. 9, pp. 135-146.
Hunter, J. 1986,‘Cognitive ability, cognitive aptitudes, job knowledge, and job performance’, Journal of Vocational Behavior, Vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 340-362.
Shoenfeldt, L. F. 1999,‘From dustbowl empiricism to rational constructs in biodata’,Human Resource Management Review, Vol.9, no. 2, pp.147-167.