Knowledge and Application of Psychology

These behaviors are not taught but rather learnt from the surroundings. The responses of the organisms are automatic and not the result of any training. Moreover, the reward or punishment in classical conditioning is not related to the behaviors. The behaviors are generally the response of the nervous system which allows humans and animals to follow their instincts (Weiten, 2007). For example, recognizing our mother’s voice and connecting it with her face so we connect two stimuli and then experience our everyday connections.
On the other hand, operant conditioning is the voluntary behaviors that are trained to the humans or animals and they are followed by rewards or punishments. The behaviors are usually directed by the consequences or rewards that come after it (Nicholas, 2009). This may also be called instrumental conditioning as the organisms get something as a consequence of their response. In operant conditions, responses are merely based on the skeletal muscles instead of the nervous system. The learning involves changes in the voluntary behavior.
Classical conditioning can be found in many of our surroundings and can be applied to our daily lives in many ways. In the disgust reactions, classical condition can already be found as it relates to our involuntary responses. We’d usually hesitate in putting our foot deliberately in a sack of mud. Even if we are told that the mud is clean and not dirty, we would instinctively hesitate in doing so as classical conditioning allows us to sense the smell of the mud and its dirt even if we haven’t touched it yet. Classical conditioning is ruled by our nervous system which warns us and restricts us to stay away from dirty, smelly, or disgusting things (Weiten, 2007).
The other claim in which classical conditioning is already present is the response to fear and phobias. When anyone is asked to go into a room from where there are creepy and