Islam Struggles for legitimacy

After the second civil was, after Ali was assassinated, Azid, the son of Omai was appointed by his father as his successor before he died. When Azid became the ruler, many Muslims disagreed with his rule as Ali appointed his son as a successor without consulting the Muslim community. Hussein Ali and Abdullah Zuberopposed this claim. This led to their killing in the battle of Kelbelle where Haussein was killed by theAzid forces and Abdulla Zuber assassinated. This really affected the Muslim communities, hence the rule of the dynasties.

The third example came by during the overthrow of the Omaids by the Abbasids. With help of the no-Arabs, the Abbasids took over the leadership from the Omaids. According to historians, the Abbasid period was referred to as the golden period due to the high development that was so pronounced in art, architecture, economy as well as education.

There are several frontiers such as the Muslim-Christian frontier in Europe, the Khurasan Persian-Turkish Frontier found in West Africa as well as the Islamic-byzantine frontier that receive credit for the Islamic civilization. There is a great development in Europe and other Western civilizations that have been achieved because of the Christian-Muslim frontier. There has been much about the development of Islam and its Europe entry, as well as its history of civilization that took place between the 8th and 13th century.