History in the 21st Century



The different approaches applied when studying the subject create uniqueness throughout the different historical eras. This essay will therefore investigate various historical approaches in the 20th century. The essay will also investigate the implication of the different approaches in history to scholars. Similar to ancient and medieval history, the twentieth history had its unique approach and method. Marxism is a historical approach of the twentieth century that was introduced by Marx. Through his philosophy, Marx had many followers who believed that that the existence of any society is determined by relationship between individuals and not the personal characteristic of each member of the society. Marxism historical approach was introduced at the height of conflict between capitalism and communism. According to Marx, capitalism was unsustainable and it would soon be overtaken by communism. Marxist considered the economy to be a key player in the determination of events or different approaches taken by life. Introducing the notion of economy was an appropriate step that the Marxist took to study the subject. This is because the economy is a major determinant of social life and societies. The economic condition of a given community determines the different approaches towards life that the communities take for their own interest. The need to maintain economic stability also determines the different measurers that are taken by a community to protect its interest. Although communism might be a better economic approach, it is unsustainable and hence the predictions made by the Marxist are not realistic. Economic sustainability is realized from sustainable economic principles. Such economy is more likely to be realized from a capitalist economy than from a communist economy. This indicates that the predictions made by the Marxists are unrealistic and unreliable in the long-term. The new social history is the most recent branch of history. In this technique, historians apply cultural approaches to study political history of a given society. Culture is the overall collection of a community’s way of life and beliefs. Communities preserve their culture by passing it from generation to generation. The culture of a given society therefore defines a form of investment that a society makes over a long duration. Culture is therefore as good basis that historians can rely on to determined or investigate the political history of a certain community. The approach taken by the new social history to study the political history of a society is an appropriate approach since it utilizes the culture of a society1. Multiculturalism is more of an ideology than a historical approach. Scholars, who apply this approach in their investigations, consider the existence of cultural institutions. The institutionalization of different communities is the classification of different communities based on their common interests. Historians who study the society through multiculturalists approach study the subject by analyzing the different classes of the society such as businesses, cities, nations and institutions. People have a tendency of forming groups that contain people with a common interest. The different groups or societies determine people way of life and their different approach towards life. Although this approach enables history scholars to study the general characteristic of a community, it does not give specific or detailed information about a community. The ap