Compare and contrast Horney’s concept of ‘womb envy’and Freud’s formulation of ‘penis envy’ in personality development

Envy is a development of a person’s awareness of an advantage enjoyed by another and the desire to possess the same advantage. Envy takes place in either real or imagined social context. According to Freud, a small girl would desire to have a penis after she sees one. Envy includes different experiences. Such experiences include the wish to possess what other has, such as aggressive feelings, negative self-feelings like feelings of inferiority, hurt feelings or irritation.
The penis envy, as put in the Freudian theory, constitutes a central element in personality development of a woman. The womb envy, on the other hand, has a lot of significance in the way various cultures regard women. The womb envy does not necessarily refer to the womb as an organ but to the entire complex of a woman’s distinctive physiology. Freud’s formulation is significant in that it offers a case study for philosophically investigating how male-cantered perspective distorts a psychology that ignores its originating stance. Culture also has much significance on personal development. Most cultures tend to disregard the females and give a lot of superiority to the males. A child will take what is in the society, and that is why most boys will tend to fight and despise girls right from their early ages. This paper seeks to analyse the similarities and differences in Freud’s formulation of the penis envy and Horney’s theory of womb envy (Nevid, 2009. John, 2010).
Horney concurred with Freud leading to the belief that personality is shaped by unconscious conflicts. Horney however focused less on sexual and aggressive drives, giving more emphasis on the various roles of social and cultural forces. Like Freud, Horney believed that fear makes children repress their hostility towards their parents. The repression of the fear is because the children are afraid of losing their parents. The repressed hostility in