Business Management Techniques

It is defining an organization’s objectives, establishing an overall strategy for achieving those objectives, and developing a comprehensive chain of command of plans to integrate and coordinate activities. The plan of action is, at one and the same time, the result predicted, the line of action to be followed, the stages to go through and the methods to be used.
In today’s world, there is a greater emphasis on flexibility, for example, the ability to employ additional staff as and when required, and less on continuity.
Organizing is the translation of goals and objectives into a structure of responsibilities and authority. ‘To organize a business is to provide it with everything useful to its functioning- raw material, tools, capital, personnel’ (Fayol, 53). In other words, it includes the determination of what tasks are to be done, which has to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made.
Command. The engineering organization, having been formed, must be set going and this is the mission of command. This ensures a successful process of the organization. A manager in command – knows his people, understands all agreements binding the firm, sets a good example, uses a meeting to focus efforts in a single direction, does not become occupied in minute details, and instills unity, energy, initiative and loyalty in the employees.
Harmonizing is to integrate the actions of all aspects of the firm in order to increase the efficiency of the organization. To harmonize is to co-ordinate all the activities of concern so as to facilitate its working and its success.
Fayol characterized good harmonization by:
Each department. for example, finance, production, maintenance, carrying out its function in an orderly and competent fashion.
Each of the departments should know exactly what mutual tasks are required of it.
Departments should adjust their work schedule according to circumstances and to the needs of the whole company operation.
Control. Control consists of confirming everything takes place in conformity with the plan implemented, the directions issued and principles established.